Saturday, May 24, 2014

The Scots-Irish: Scots-Irish Books

The Scots-Irish: Scots-Irish Books: Three centuries of life in a Tyrone parish. A history of Donagheady from 1600 to 1900, by William Roulston (USD $ 12.95) Format Ebook.  ...

Sunday, August 18, 2013

Gaelic Lord and warrior circa 1000 AD (c) Ulster Heritage


Gaelic Lord and warrior circa 1000AD in Argyll.  Mid Argyll was the home of the Gall-Ghaeil, or the 'foreign Gaels,' in the early medieval period (850AD to 1150AD). These people were primarily Gaelic in ethnicity, but were very influenced by their exposure to the Norse.  They became Gaelic Vikings essentially. They adopted Norse technology in the accoutrements of war and shipbuilding.  The warrior caste society of Argyll founded by the Gall-Ghaeil gave rise to the Gallóglaigh and later the Redshanks. 

Thursday, June 13, 2013

Redshank Surnames in the Laggan District

 I have been doing research on the 1630 muster roll taken in the Portlough precinct of the Laggan District in east Donegal.  This is an important area because it was where the Redshanks of Fionnaula Níc Dhónaill settled.  She is also known in history as the very famous Iníon Dubh, a major player in Irish history.  She was a Scottish princess, the daughter of Seamus Mac Dónaill, Taoiseach of Clann Dónaill and Anna Chamibeul, daughter of the Earl of Argyll. 

Below is a list of the men on the 1630 Portlough precinct muster roll.  This list is particularly important as according to Crown records, as late as 1628, this precinct was described as not being planted yet, meaning to English eyes it was still very Gaelic and Irish, but in fact, it had been planter after a fashion, but by Scottish Gaels from Argyll, the Hebrides, and Ayrshire.

For those who are researching via DNA testing, the list below particularly important.  If as your match group forms, and if you find a geographic link to the Laggan, this list may contain your ancestor on it.

Almost all the surnames on the list are Scottish.  Most from mid Argyll, but quite a few from the Lennox, and western Ayrshire.  Many of the names are of obvious Caimbeul sponsored Redshanks who came with Iníon Dubh to Donegal circa 1569 into the late 1590s.  The Caimbeul clan recruited Redshanks from not only their base in mid Argyll, but also from allied clans in the Lennox, from Arran, Bute, Mull, etc.

I have left the spellings as they appeared on the original list, which some modern forms in parenthesis.  On a personal note, I was surprised to find my own ancestor on the list.  Not only is he remembered in the oral history of my family here in the New World, but there are still McCains living in Donegal right where he reported for the muster roll.  Which is illustrative of how to combine DNA testing, oral family history, and primary source documents, to recover lost family history.

I am now working the Scottish point of origin of all the Redshank surnames on the list.  This will be offered in the hard copy version of A History of the Laggan Redshanks, 1569-1630 which will be out this summer.


Adam (Adam, Adams, McAdam)
McAdowe (MacCow)
Aickeene (Aitken)
McAlexander, Alexander
Allan, Allen
Allyson (Allison)
McAndrew (Andrew)
Arnott
McArthur
Ballintyne
Barbor (Barbour)
Barkly
Barlaine, Barlone
Baruzathyn (Brabazon)
McBaxter
Beare (Barry)
Boyd
Boyes
Boyill, (Boyle)
Bredyne, Bredene (Brendan)
Brice
Brittein
Browne
Buchanan
Bullesine (Ballentine)
McCadame (MacAdam)
Callhow
Calmeris, Calmeris
Calwell
McCamy
Campbell
McCan (MacCann)
McCahey
Carlell (Carlisle)
Carr
McCarslaire
McCawly (McCauley)
McCleane, (MacClain, MacClane, MacLain)
McClaney
McCleary
Cock
Cokeran  Cocheran
McCole, McColl
Colmories
Colquphone,  Mcquchowne (Calhoun)
McConnell (MacDonald, MacDonnell)
McConochy
Cooke
McCorkill
McCredy (McCready)
Crawfford (Crawford)
Cruse (Cruise)
Conningham  (Cunningham)
McCullagh (MacCullough)
McCurid
Davidson, David, Davison
Davye, Davy
Denniston, Denyston
McDonnell
Douglas
Dromond (Drummond)
Dyne
McEmmory (McEmery, Amory)
Enery
McEuan
Ewing
Mcffarlen (MacFarlane)
Mcffay (MacFay)
ffife, (Fife)
ffoulton  (Foulton)
ffulloone, (Folane)
ffynlagh (Finlay)
Gafeth
Galbreath (Galbraith)
Gall
Gambell (Campbell)
Gamill
Galey
Garvance
George
Gibb
McGillione
Gillmore
Gillrew
McGilrouse
Glass
McGourden
Graham
Greire (Greer, Greir)
Giffin
Gillaspy (Gillespie, Archibald)
Gulilan
Haldin
Hamilton
Hamond
Harper
Hasta
Henry
Hewes (Hughs)
Highgate
Hinman
Home, Hoomes (Holmes)
Horner
Hourd
Hunter
Hururence
Hustone, Houston
McHutchon (MacCutchen)
McIldonagh
McIlman
McIlhome
McIltherne (Mac Elheron)
McIlwane
Johnston (Johnston, Johnson)
McKaire
McKan (MacCann)
Makee, (MacGee, MacKey)
McKeeg
McKaine (MacCain, MacKane, MacKean, McKeen)
McKeene, (MacCain, MacKane, MacKean, MacKeen)
Keine (Cain, Kane, Kean, Keen)
Kelly
Kennen
Kenedye, Kenedy, Kenedy, Henedy (Kennedy)
McKennye, McKenny
Kennan
McKergour
Killy (Kelly)
McKirdly
Kilsoe (Kelso)
Knox
McKyndely, (MacKenley)
McLentock (MacClintock)
Lars
Laughlan (MacLachlan)
Lawder
Leackye, Lackye, Lackye, Leaky
Leag
Leman (Leaman)
McLenochan (MacLenachan, MacClenahan)
Logan
Lokehart (Lockart)
Lowrye
Lyndsey  Lyndsay,
McLynienie
Lyone
Marshell (Marshall)
Martin
Michell (Mitchell)
Miller
Morison
Moire, Moore
Muntgomery (Montgomery)
Mure (Muir)
mcMuyre (McMurry)
Muthey
McNair
Naught (MacNaught)
McNeron
McNichol
McNit (MacNitt)
McNevin, McNiven
Noble
Or
Parmenter
Patterson
Peacock, Pecock
Pearce
McPeter
Porlerm (Parlan)
Porter
Pots
Quahone (MacCone)
Ralston (Raulston)
Ramsey
Ranckein, Rankin (Rankin)
Reed
Reroch
Richye, Richey
Richmoule
Roger (Roger, Rodger)
Robinson
Rothes
Royare (Rory)
Royer
Sempell
Scot
Smyth, (Smith)
Smeally
Snodgarse
Speare
Speney
Squire
Staret (Starret)
Steavenson (Stevenson)
Steward
Stole
Swayne, Swaine
Symison (Simpson)
Toes
Thomson, Thompson
Thromble (Trumble)
Mctyre (MacIntyre)
Valentyne
Walker, McWalker
Wan
Watson
White
Willy
McWilliam (Williams)
Wilson
Wood
McWrick (MacRirick)
Young

Wednesday, April 17, 2013

Redshank Dress in the 1500s and Early 1600s

Mark Hanna is a historical reenactor with an interest in the Redshanks.  He is also a skilled textile craftsman who makes accurate reconstructions of Redshank clothing.  Below are three photos depicting some of the variety in Highland Scottish clothing circa mid 1500s to mid 1600s. 


 
Mark Hanna in Redshank garb late 1500s

Mark Hanna, showing the variety in Redshank clothing circa 1600


Mark Hanna, in traditional saffron Leine
 

Sunday, March 17, 2013

Early Example of the Kilt

circa 1603
The illustration above was done in 1603 by Hieronymous Tielch.   The fèileadh mór, pictured above, was in general use by the mid 1590s, given the popularity of the garment by that time it must have been in use for some time, perhaps by the mid 1500s in some areas of the Western Highlands.  There is much speculation on why and how it came into use; it very likely have to do with the growing colder climate in Europe at that time and improvements in looms.  Fashions change, even among social conservative societies such as the Gaels. The earliest eye withness accounts of the kilt being worn come from 1594 in a description of Redshanks in service of Aodh Rua Ó Dónaill in Donegal.

Sunday, February 24, 2013

Argyll and the Gall Gael

The society in Argyll, and parts of the west Highlands in general, was unique in the Gaelic world, because of the influence of the Norse.  The Norse settled in Argyll, they did not replace the indigenous Gaelic population, but rather they joined to it, and created a unique people called the Gall-Gael, or 'foreign Gaels.'  This unique people also had a significant cultural and technological input from Norse, specially Viking, society.  The old Scottish kingdom of Dál Riata was the epicenter of Gall-Gael society.  (also spelled Gall Gàidheil in modern Scot's Gaelic) It was this society that the Gallóglaigh and related Redshank warrior castes flourished.  Their organization and accoutrement of war was Viking in origin. 

The Gall-Gael were more Gaelic in that the Norse influence was small in numbers, and it can be said they were more a case of native Gaels going 'Viking.'   We do know that the DNA results of many Argyll families from historical Gallóglaigh and Redshanks kinships, are native Gaelic in origin.

 
The Gall-Gael are the subject of recent historical research.   Below is a link to an article by a young Scottish historian that address Gall Gael people and society in mid Argyll.

Link: From Dalriata to Gall-Gaidheil

Saturday, February 9, 2013

Redshank Captain Pay

The Redshanks took service in Ulster and in other places for the money. Being a Redshank soldier was profitable. Most of the Redshanks came from Argyll, Lennox,  and the Hebrides, but more than a few came from the southwest Borders Lowlands.   In the sixteenth century, during their heyday, the pay was good and grew in the second half of the century as the wars in Ulster between the Irish and the Elizabethan English grew in size and scope.

By 1575 a Redshank consapal (constable or captain) was on the same pay-scale as a Gallóglaigh captain according the Calendar of State Papers concerning Ireland.  The pay-scale during this time was on the increase because demand was greater than the supply.  In 1553 a Gallóglach received the equivalent of 4d (pence) per day, but by 1562 the pay had risen to 8d a day.  The Consapal received considerably higher wages.  This was done via deadpays or the wages of a soldier in a córugud (company) that went to the consapal.  The standard córugud was 100 men on paper, but the actual number of men would be 87 and the pay of the 13 absent men would go to the constable as deadpays.  

The consapal received his pay and 13 addition soldiers' pay which was a substantial wage in the day.  The pay was received in a variety of ways. It could be cattle, or goods, or food, etc., or coin realm. If in coin realm there was considerable difference between pay in Scots coinage, Irish coinage, and English coinage.  Scots money in particular was considerably debased and worth much less than English money. 

The pay of the Redshanks increased throughout the 1500s.  They were in very high demand as the wars against the Elizabethan English escalated and as the century progress so did the pay scale of the mercenary Redshanks. The scale of pay fluctuated considerably, but here is an example of daily wages of soldier in the 1500s:

Captain 8s ($390)   
sub captain 4s ($192)
Leeche (medic) 4s ($192)
sergeant 1s ($48)
soldier 8d ($32) 
 
For perspective, the yearly income of a country squire at this time was around 100 to 150 pounds.  A Redshank consapal could expect at least 72 pounds for a half year's work, plus would often have other benefits, such as a horse to ride, a pack horse, and arms, supplied to him.  This would put him on par with the gentry of his age.  A particularly well placed and successful Redshank consapal could earn more than this figure and rise to the ranks of an elevated country squire or more.